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WTO攻击美国丁香烟进口禁令

2011年09月13日 来源:烟草在线据雅加达全球报道编译 作者:
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  烟草在线据雅加达全球报道编译  印尼政府欢迎世界贸易组织(简称世贸组织)对美国丁香烟进口禁令做出了不利裁决,要求重启丁香烟的发货。

  这个全球贸易组织在周五(9月2日)裁定,在禁止印尼丁香烟的销售方面,美国实施了歧视性的贸易规则。

  在9月4日星期天,印尼贸易局的国际贸易局长Gusmardi Bustami说,此裁决明确美国进行了贸易歧视。

  “有了这个裁决,美国必须承认他们的歧视性贸易规则错了。我找不出我们不能恢复向美国销售丁香烟的任何理由,”Gusmardi说。

  在2009年9月,美国食品和药物管理局禁止销售有水果味、糖果味或丁香味的卷烟,声称这些烟草产品鼓励年轻人吸烟。

  这导致接下来的一年禁止进口丁香烟。但并不禁止薄荷烟,印尼政府表示,美国保护国内销售的薄荷烟,它意欲把丁香烟逐出市场。

  “我们的研究表明,丁香烟和薄荷烟同样有害健康,因此,这项禁令是歧视性禁令,”Gusmardi说。

  在其裁决中,世界贸易组织发现丁香味和薄荷味的卷烟都是“同样产品”。

  Gusmardi说,不足1%的年轻吸烟者使用丁香烟,在美国卷烟总销量中不足1%。与此同时,43%的年轻吸烟者消费薄荷烟,占到了该国卷烟总销量的近25%。

  这项裁决并非完全对印尼有利。世贸组织拒绝了其第二项指控,即该禁令是多余的。世贸组织发现,该禁令旨在降低年轻人的吸烟率,是合法的途径。

  但是Gusmardi质疑该裁决,声称提供这种卷烟,并不意味着丁香烟制造商针对的是年轻人。

  “问题是,吸烟更多的是养成习惯的问题,而不是很容易获得单个产品,”他说。

  世贸组织要求美国的限制规则要符合国际贸易规则。在60天内,双方可对裁决进行上诉。

  Gusmardi说,印尼不会上诉,声称该裁决明确表示美国歧视印尼的丁香烟。

  在禁令前,印尼是美国最大的丁香烟出口国,占到了美国丁香烟市场的99%,年销售额达1亿美元。

  薄荷烟几乎完全是在美国生产的。古当加拉姆和嘉润是印尼向美国的两大丁香烟出口商。

WTO Torpedoes US Ban on Importation of Kretek

Jakarta Globe
Sep 4, 2011

  The Indonesian government has welcomed the World Trade Organization's ruling against a US ban on the importation of clove cigarettes, calling for shipments to resume.

  The global trade body ruled on Friday that the United States was imposing discriminatory trade rules in banning the sale of kretek — Indonesian clove cigarettes.

  Gusmardi Bustami, the director general of international trade at Indonesia's Trade Ministry, said on Sunday that the ruling made it clear that the US had engaged in trade discrimination.

  "With this ruling, the US must admit that they were wrong for their discriminatory trade rules. I don't see any reasons why we can't resume selling kretek cigarettes to the US," Gusmardi said.

  The US Food and Drug Administration in September 2009 banned cigarettes with fruit, confectionery or clove flavors, arguing they encouraged young people to smoke.

  That resulted in a ban of imports of kretek the following year. But menthol cigarettes were not banned, and the Indonesian government said the US was protecting domestic sales of menthol cigarettes and that it intended to keep kretek out of the market.

  "Our study concludes that clove and menthol are equally harmful to health, therefore, the ban was discriminatory," Gusmardi said.

  In its ruling, the WTO panel found that clove and menthol-flavored cigarettes are "like products."

  Gusmardi said that kretek is used by fewer than 1 percent of young smokers and accounts for less than 1 percent of total cigarette sales in the US. Meanwhile, menthol was consumed by 43 percent of young smokers and made up almost 25 percent of total cigarettes sold in the country.

  The ruling was not entirely favorable for Indonesia. The WTO rejected its second claim, that the ban was unnecessary. The WTO found that the ban was a legitimate approach on the basis that it was aimed at reducing smoking among young people.

  But Gusmardi questioned the ruling, saying that having cigarettes available does not mean kretek manufacturers were targeting young people.

  "The problem with smoking is that it's more of a habit-forming problem rather than one of the product being widely available," he said.

  The WTO concluded by asking the US to bring its restrictions into conformity with international trade rules. Both parties have 60 days to appeal the ruling.

  Gusmardi said Indonesia would not appeal, saying the ruling made it clear the US had discriminated against Indonesia's clove cigarettes.

  Before the ban, Indonesia was the biggest exporter of kretek to the US, accounting for 99 percent of the clove cigarette market there, with annual sales totaling $100 million.

  Menthol cigarettes are almost produced entirely in the US. Gudang Garam and Djarum are Indonesia's two biggest exporters of clove cigarettes to the nation.

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